Los investigadores COES Emmanuelle Barozet (investigadora asociada), Juan Carlos Castillo (subdirector e investigador principal) y el becario de doctorado Daniel Miranda participaron en XVIII ISA World Congress of Sociology.
El evento tuvo lugar entre el 13-19 de julio de 2014 en Yokohama, Japón.
La investigadora Barozet presentó con el también sociólogo Óscar Mac-Clure la ponencia “Judgments about Inequality and Economic Elite among the Middle Classes: Discontents and Sociology of Critique”.
Abstract del paper (Emmanuelle Barozet)
This paper will present the preliminary results of an investigation on the Chilean middle class and its perception of the socioeconomic elite. The global emergence of the middle class (Banerjee & Duflo 2007, Ravallion 2009, Birdsall 2010, Kharas 2011, Franco, Hopenhayn & León 2011, Dobbs et al. 2012, Ferreira et al. 2012, López & Ortiz 2012, Oliveira 2012, Chunling 2012) has created a renewed interest in global sociology due to the rapid growth and socio-political challenges that the new middle classes pose. How do those who belong to the middle class in emergent countries feel and think in everyday life about one of the more salient expressions of world inequalities, the socioeconomic elite – i.e. “the 1%”? Emerges a perception of injustice, discontent and critique? How does that happen – or not?
We conducted a study using an experimental methodology based on games that replicate similar exercises applied by
social scientists in studies in various countries – unknown persons and dictator games. Starting with a middle-class differentiation by occupation and distinguishing by type of territory where they live and work, the simulation exercise was located in three cities of different sizes in Chile. In each city, six simulation games were conducted with participants drawn from five components of Chilean middle classes and one from manual workers. This method allows the study of feelings and perceptions that arise in simulated situations of social interaction, which could not be observed through surveys or interviews.
In this paper, we present the preliminary results, especially subjective elements that nourish and give meaning to middle classes, reproducing or challenging inequities. The paper will contribute on topics that are relevant to stratification in the context of globalization, such as different middle classes based on occupational criteria, and their feelings and perceptions of justice/injustice towards the socioeconomic elite.
Abstract: Inequality, Justice Beliefs and Political Participation in Latin America (Juan Carlos Castillo)
A series of studies consistently show that socioeconomic status is related to higher rates of electoral participation. Such association implies a transmission of economic inequality into political inequality, threatening ideals of equality and even the legitimacy of the political system. Nevertheless, there are several elements that could affect this link and that deserve further attention. First, is not clear whether this patterns holds accross other participation forms, for instance protest participation. Secondly, beliefs about how goods and rewards should be distributed in society might play a role in this realm, since those with a strongest preference for an egalitarian distribution could be more willing to participate in order to pressure for their demands. Thirdly, country level indicators such as the inequality level could affect the link between status and participation i.e. in societies with higher inequality the link between status and participation would be higher. The present study aims at addressing these issues in Latin America, the region of the world with the highest inequality indexes.
A series of multilevel models are estimated based on data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project 2012 (N=28,021; countries=18), which in this last wave has a special focus on distribution and inequality. Preliminary results show that status variables such as the educational level are positively related with both electoral and protest participation. Furthermore, those with a strongest belief in redistribution depict a higher probability to participate. Nevertheless, the role of inequality as
context level variable on participation does not show a clear direction in the analysis, which leads to discuss about considering further macro indicators (for instance democratic indexes) as well as to attend to countries’ particular characteristics that could affect a stronger or weaker link between inequality, justice beliefs and participation. (Project funded by FONDECYT grant 11121203)
Abstract: Inequality in Students’ Citizenship Participation Across Countries (Daniel Miranda)
Citizenship participation is a key element to sustain and legitimize the democratic system. Although citizens are assumed to have similar rights, the empirical evidence suggests that participation is characteristic of those with higher socioeconomic background (Brady, et. al., 1995). Furthermore, these inequalities would have an intergenerational transmission (Verba, Burns & Schlozman, 2003): children with well-educated parents have the knowledge, skills and attitudes for participate in a more effective way. The main objective of this study is to analyze the individual and contextual (school and country) elements that can mitigate/strengthen the impact of the social background on student´s citizenship participation, guided by the following questions: To what extent students’ participation levels differ across countries? Are these differences related to contextual factors? Do contextual factors affect the link between students’ background and participation? The central hypothesis in this study is that country contextual economic indicators as well as democratic indicators influence both participation and the impact of background on participation. In particular, we expect that in countries with higher inequality indexes the influence of students’ and school socioeconomic background on participation is stronger, reason why we pay special attention to Latin America, the region of the world with the high income inequality worldwide.
The present paper analyzes data from the International Civic and Citizenship Study 2009 (N=140,000, 38 countries). The main object of study is citizen participation, composed by two dimensions: present-future and civil-civic. Whereas civil participation refers to activities that involve interaction with the local communities, civic participation is conceived as related to formal institutions. Preliminary multilevel results show that the association between socioeconomic background and participation is strong and varies across countries, however shows different patterns depending on the kind of participation. Some country context dimension has an effect on the levels of participation. Comparison among regions will be discussed.